Aquatic Exercise and Cancer
Summer is full on here in British Columbia and the sunshine and long evenings are truly amazing. You may have already enjoyed a swim or looked longingly at a sparkling, outdoor pool and wondered if swimming is really the right thing for you. But, swimming laps is not the only thing you can do in a pool.
Aquatic exercise includes a broad range of activities and exercise that can be done in water, such as walking, stretching, deep water running, pushing floats and paddles around for increased resistance, cycling while lying on a noodle, stomping on a noodle, attaching a float to your ankle and perform standing stability exercises, breast stroke, jumping, squatting, back stroke, kicking with flippers, and so on. The list is endless!
In addition to being lots of fun and providing you with much needed vitamin D if you are in an outdoor pool, aquatic exercise can provide many benefits.
For the Joints and Muscles
If joint aches and pains are limiting your ability to exercise on land, the water is an excellent medium to try instead. The resistance provided by the water allows you to work as hard or as gently as you want. The buoyancy reduces the impact on the joints and may reduce or eliminate joint pain while you are exercising in the water. That experience can possibly break the pain cycle. In addition, the exercises will improve joint range of movement and increase the strength of the surrounding muscles.
For Strength, Flexibility and Cardiovascular Benefits
Using floats, flippers, buoys, paddles, and kickboards in a variety of ways can create an entire body workout. You can use floats to assist a stretch or to push down on the water to increase resistance. When using paddles, the slower you move them through the water the easier the resistance. The faster you move them, the harder the resistance. Swimming and other aquatic exercises use many large muscle groups throughout the body while also working out the cardiovascular system. Health benefits of cardiovascular exercise include weight reduction/control, reduced blood pressure, increased good (HDL) cholesterol, reduced bad (LDL) cholesterol, reduction in cancer-related fatigue, improved circulation of oxygen around your body, and improved blood sugar control.
For Psychological Benefits
Many people find they achieve a psychological boost from swimming and aquatic exercise. With your head in the water, you are alone with your own thoughts or even no thoughts. The repetitive movement and sound can be meditative. Combined with the endorphins released from this full body workout, the end result can be energizing and satisfying. A sense of accomplishment can contribute to better feelings far beyond the time you are in the water.
To Help with Cancer-related Fatigue
A randomised control trial conducted in Spain in 2013 investigated the effectiveness of aquatic exercises on breast cancer survivors. After performing aquatic exercises 3 times a week for 8 weeks the participants showed significant improvements in cancer-related fatigue and strength.
For a Reduction in Breast Symptoms
In another trial conducted in Spain in 2013 comparing water-based and land-based exercise with usual care found that land-based exercise produced a greater decrease in body fat and an increase in lean muscle mass, whereas the water-based exercise was better for reducing the breast symptoms often experienced by cancer survivors: pain, swelling, sensitivity, and skin problems.
There are a few issues to consider when it comes to aquatic exercise and cancer.
The chlorine used by many public pools irritates the skin during chemotherapy and radiation due to the skin’s increased sensitivity. If you have no residual sensitivity, this may not be an issue for you. More and more pools are using different cleaning systems such as salt and ozone, which is much less irritating to the skin. This is not a concern if you are exercising in a lake or an ocean!
Cancer treatment can reduce your body’s ability to fight infection by compromising the immune system. There is an increased risk of infection in water. This is especially true in public swimming pools. In a private pool the risk is reduced, provided the pool is kept clean and chemicals are regulated well.
The temperature of the pool also needs to be considered. If the pool is kept too warm (over 31) and you are swimming laps, deep water running or other vigorous activity you may experience more fatigue. As an alternative in a warmer pool, try some gentle stretches and relaxation, but keep the vigorous activity to a minimum to avoid temperature-induced fatigue. For swimming laps, the ideal temperature is between 27-29 degrees Celsius.
Another consideration is your heart. When you are submerged in water your blood pressure increases due to the pressure on your body (hydrostatic pressure). The temperature of the water also affects your blood pressure. If the water is cold, your blood vessels constrict and your blood pressure goes up. If the water is hot, your heart rate will increase initially, then after a few minutes the blood vessels dilate and lower the blood pressure. Heart conditions can be a side effect of cancer treatment, thus it is advisable to get a medical clearance from your treating medical practitioner prior to commencing any exercise program.
Aquatic exercise is great to use in conjunction with land-based exercise. It can offer a great all-round workout while giving the weight bearing joints some recovery time. Summer is the perfect time to hit the pool, ocean or lake and try some aquatic exercise!
By Dale Ischia